Subject: 150 years of petroleum age (1860 / 2010)
- To alert every body concerned ABT the abandon of the natural petroleum sources sooner than expected???
- Despite the fact that Egypt was one of the pioneer countries in petroleum exploration and production, it is considered nowadays not only one of the consuming countries but also importing one, adding to fact, Egypt reached its production peak since 1987?? ( after world watch institute )
It is worth to mention that most information of historical and statistical data were collected from:
- Petroleum Geology book by EN. Tiratsoo, 1951.
- Petroleum consultant book, 1978.
- First Arab petroleum congress Cairo / April, 1959 by DR. M.I. Faris.
- Giant Oil / Gas field by A.A.P.G.
- Published ( Peak oil ) articles / 2007 - 2010
PETROLEUM IN HISTORY
Among the ancient civilization that grew up in the valleys of Euphrates and Tigris the use of bitumen from the abundant local surface deposits was common. Elamites, Chaldeans, Akkadian, Sumerians Jams and Assyrians all employed this material, either for ornaments, for building cement, or most commonly or extensively for caulking the boats that were used to navigate the great rivers.
The legend of the flood, so vividly preserved in the epic poem of Gilgamesh perhaps records only the most catastrophic of the many inundations to which the low-lying river lands have been subjected since human life first flourished there. These frequent floods necessitated the construction of well-caulked boats and led to the first recorded employment
Gilgamesh perhaps recoded only the most catastrophic of the many inundations to which the low-lying river lands have been subjected since human life first flourished there. These frequent floods necessitated the construction of well-caulked boats and led to the first recorded employment of petroleum derivatives. The Akkadians and Assyrian mined asphalt from the shallow deposits which are found at several places in modern Iraq. Assyrian tablets (the annals of Tukulti Ninouria) identify Hit on the Euphrates as one of these places. Qayarah and Kirkuk are also referred to.
Hit was originally called TM, or Ihidakira, meaning "the bitumen spring" it is undoubtedly one of the most ancient sources of petroleum material in the world. Its name has persisted most unchanged through many centuries, From Hit and other places in ancient Mesopotamia, it is probable that bitumen was exported to Egypt. The tribute paid to Thotmos III at Karnak included a material from Mesopotamia called "1st" which is also termed "Sift.". This coincides remarkably closely with the "Zift" of Arabic and Hebrew (Exod. iii, 2), which means pitch, or bitumen. It is interesting to-note that in modern colloquial Arabic, "Zift" is frequently used to signify "black," and hence "bad."
In Egypt, bitumens were employed in the preparation of mummies, in ornamental work and for boat caulking. Various petroleum oils were also used medicinally, under the names if "Syrian oil" or "green oil.". Furthermore, in ancient Egyptian records there are frequent references to liquid fire, basins of flame, etc. which seem to indicate a very per-sis tent race-memory, of the phenomena associated with surface gas and oil seepages. Perhaps this ancient memory may be that of Caucasians eternal fires, since it is possible that the Egyptians were originally a Caucasian race who migrated westward.
In Iran, oil was know and used since earliest times. Archaeological remains at Susa in Khuzestan show that bitumens were already employed.
In that area for bonding and Jewel-setting in the Sumerian epoch, about 4000 B.C. The word "naphtha," so commonly used in both the ancient and modern worlds to describe liquid petroleum, had its origin in the old Iranian tongue-probably from the verbal root "nab," to be moist. Later, this word was transmitted to the Western world by the Arabs and Greeks.
Within the ancient Persian realm, which included Azerbaijan and Baku, the worship of the fire which so strangely issued from the ground in many places was commenced, and temples were built over the flames.
It was in Persia, too, that the use of petroleum as a war weapon originated. At the siege of Athens in 480 n.c. Herodotus (viii, 52) records that the Persian used incendiary arrows, which were wrapped with tow soaked in oil.
After the fall of Babylon in 600 B.C., the general use of asphalts and bitumens for building purposes decreased, and these substances were looked upon by the Greeks simply as curiosities. The Romans also had little use for bitumen in their building, since they built in quarried stone and used the abundant "puzzolano" as cement. Petroleum oils were, however, used in the Roman Empire for medical purposes and for religious rites, and bitumens were used in the manufacture and repair of ships.
After the decline of Rome, the knowledge of the occurrence and properties of petroleum became the inheritance of the Arabs, who developed the first refining and distilling processes for obtaining light, highly inflammable oils which could be employed for military purposes. The famous "Greek Fire," originally invented by Byzantine Kallinikos, Nikos included "Medean oil" in formula, from Northern Persia or Baku.
During this period, the heavier constituents of petroleum were little used, except in the form of medicines and drugs, mostly obtained from the bituminous wrappings of disinterred Egyptian mummies.
With the Renaissance, a number of sources of crude oil and bitumen were discovered in Europe, and then in the new-found America. Raleigh used the asphalt of the Trinidad Pitch Lake for repairing his ships, and samples of petroleum oils were brought to Europe by Travelers from Baku, Burma and China. Late in the seventeenth sufficient shallow oil was produced and distilled in the Modena district of Italy to be used as a method of lighting streets in several towns. Rock asphalt began to be mined from the deposits at Seyssel, Val de Travers and Ragusa when there was a demand for new road-making after the close of the a Napoleonic Wars. Paraffin wax was first obtained from shale oil in 1830, and later used in the manufacture of candles. The increasing demand for kerosene for lighting purposes led to the development of the shale oil industry in Scotland.
Up to the middle of the nineteenth century, all methods of obtaining petroleum dealt only with the small quantities that could be obtainect from shallow pits and seepages. In August 1859, Colonel Drake drilled.
The first oil well at Oil Creek in Pennsylvania, employing the percussion drilling methods that were commonly used in that district to obtain brines which could be evaporated for their salt residues.
This first oil well reached a depth of 69 feet, and produced 25 barrels of oil a day. Its success brought an immediate stimulus to the new petroleum industry. In 1860, 175 wells were each succeeding year more wells were drilled and more oil territory was opened up in the United States and in Europe. In Russia, Roumania and Poland oil fields were rapidly discovered and exploited, and by 1880 the annual word production of crude oil had reached 30 million barrels.
In succeeding years the production of oil increased with remarkable rapidity. During the first forty years of existence of the industry, its principal interest was the supply of lamp oil (kerosene) for lighting and heating purposes and the manufacture of lubricating oils. From 1900 to 1910 the production of fuel oil became the most important requirement, and there after the phenomenal development of the internal-com-bustion engine resulted in enormous demands for the gasoline which had previously been looked upon as a waste product.
OIL PRODUCTION & RESERVES
Until end of years 1977 world estimated oil reserves was 584.500 Billion BLS and cumulative production was 381.200 billion BLS with a daily average production of 60 Million BBL/day out of it, middle east sharing more than 350 Billion BLS as estimated reserve (over 60% of the world reserve) , cumulative production 101.123 Billion BLS (less than 30% of the world production) and 22.110 Million BL/day ( 30% of the world daily production)
It is worth mentioning that most of the major oil and fields as were discovered before the year 1970 for example;
- Ghawar of S.A discovered, 1948 with estimated reserve exceed 75 Billion BLS.
- Burgan of Kuwait discovered, 1938with 66 Billion BLS.
- Bolivar, Venezuela discovered, 1953 w/25 Billion BLS
- Prudhoe pay Alaska discovered 1967, w/220 Billion BLS
List of World's Giant oil/Gas field is attached to this report.
In the past in time when the max. rate of global petroleum extraction is reached, after which the rate of production enters terminal decline
Optimistic estimation of peak will begin by 2020 pessimistic is that peak already occurred
DEMAND FOR OIL
World crude oil demand grew an average of 1.76% per year; this will increase to 37% over 2006 level by the year 2030 (from 86 million B/S to 118 million B/S)
USA is the largest consumer 20.7 Million B/S
Chine 7 million B/S
According to a published list of the world proven reserves on July 5th 2012
- Number of oil producing countries ≈ 50% of countries reserve (97)
- Number of countries having more than 100 Billion BLS (7)
- Number of countries W/more than 50 Billion (2)
W/more than 20 Billion (4)
W/20-10 Billion (5)
W/10-5 Billion (6)
W/5-1 Billion (16)
W/1-1/2 Billion (5)
W/1/2 Billion -100.000.000 (22)
W/less than 100.000.000 (30)
4 – Middle East, North Africa 16 countries in chiding Israel
- SAUDI ARABIA ≈ 32% x 265 Billion (20%)
- IRAN 17% 138 Billion (10.10%)
- IRAQ 14% 114 Billion (8.7%)
- KUWAIT 12.5% 102 Billion (8.5%)
- EMIRATES 10.5% 98 Billion (7.2%)
- LIBY 3.5% 46 Billion (3.3%)
- QATAR 2.2% 27 Billion (1.1%)
- ALGERIA 15 Billion (0.9%)
- ANGOLA 14 Billion (0.7%)
- OMAN 5 Billion (0.4%)
Total 812 Billion 60.9%
11- EGYPT 4.5 Billion 0.30%
12- YEMEN 3.3 Billion 0.22%
13- SYRIA 2.5 Billion 0.20%
14- TUNISA 0.5 Billion 0.03%
15- BAHRAIN 0.130 Billion 0.01%
≈ 823 Billion ≈ 62%
Comparing W/ ISREAL 2 Million BBI / represents
0.0% of the World Reserves
Not ineluding Gas Reserves. EGYPT has Approximate 4.5 BBBLS of proven Oil Reserves, located AT the 37 level of the total 97 Oil Countries. And considered to be at 11th level comparing with 15th Middle East and North African Countries, Despite the fact that its reserves represents only 0.36% of the World total Reserves, and less than 0.5% of the Middle East and North African Reserves
(World petroleum map is attached)
ASI pointed out that the tar set of this issue is to ALERT Concerned panties to the fact that "Petroleum will be depleted sooner than expected,???"
So we should face this problem and be ready for alternatives, the question is could these alternatives (Solar, Wind, Nuclear Energy, etc). Sufficient to satisfy the worlds demand for energy or not??? and could the third world under developed countries can afford the cost of these Alternatives or not??? and its technology
Unless we have to consider that third world or under developed countries relize the size of the problem they are facing in the near future. They will be poorer and more Dependable on the industrial countries more than ever.
At the same time, the industrial countries should count for the Bur pen, they will bear if they do not consider the third world countries problems while developing such technology for other energy sources.
The serious GOOD WELL EFFORT FROM each side, in solving this problem is essential and badly needed, AS
No matter what so ever, proposing solutions, without the Good Well of each side for matual cooperation.
Due to the fact that, the world will face a serious problem, upon petroleum depleation, this subject should have the first priority, and its file will be always in our hands for discussions, solutions.
I.e. The Article is not finished yet???
DR. M. EL-GAZZAR
4 / 2010