Human Bridge to Sinai
By Dr. Mohammed El Gazar
As a geologist working in the field of Archeological site investigation, I was
contacted by The "RED SEA Research Group" a society out of Seattle, WA,
USA, They asked me to help them Explore the escape sea route to Sinai (Exodus).
The society is fully convinced that the exodus route is located at Ras Adablyah
near Suez city, Egypt. This theory, however, requires a proper technical site
The scientific community holds that the exodus crossing did not happen as the
scriptures stated or did not happen at all since scant evidence can be found for
their stay in Egypt or nvnn in the Sinai. Is there enough evidence both physical
and circumstantial, traditionally and historically to warrant the investigation of the
Exodus? What is the location of that site and what would it take to verify the site?
That account would be one where you have the exciting group going through a sea
crossing and wandering in the Sinai for 40 years. No serious proposals have them
going through the Gulf of Suez or the Red Sea Proper. However in all honesty that
is how the historical record presents the matter.
The Bitter lakes Crossing is non Scriptural in other critical ways. The Wilderness
is not closing in on them at this site. Nor do we have the Cities mentioned in the
Scriptural account. Another account has the Israelites exiting along the coast of
the Mediterranean but the Scriptures told them not to go that way. But the author
of that theory had found a Migdol and thought that he had found the crossing
site. We cannot have one clue and on target, all the clues should come together
Only at one site do all the clues come together for the Exodus location and it also
happens to be where tradion said it happened. That is way we have old Dutch and
English maps showing this site as the location of Baal Zephone mentioned in the
Scriptural account. Tradition does not hold that they went by the main road to
Canaan nor does it have them going through the Bitter lakes nor through any other
route. Where does tradition hold that the crossing took place? According to the
old man. That site is located about 10 air miles South of Suez City. And that is the
same location that Dr.W. F Albright thought they crossed through at.
The mountain ran go that into the Gulf of Suez at that point is called Gebel Ataqah
also known as the "mountain of deliverance". On the opposite shore is a well
known location called Ayoun Musa. If tradition has this as the site what other
evidence can be presented to give this site creditability? The physical evidence that
can be viewed at the site is the location of the 3 cities mentioned in the Scriptural
account. One of these is the Migdol, which means lookout or tower. It is a man
made structure in Gebel Ataqah and it would have been used to keep track of
or view traffic around the end of the Gulf of Suez. There was a series of these
Migdols along Egypt's frontier for security reasons and this particular one would
have prevented military traffic going into middle or upper Egypt.
There is also an underwater structure located close to the modern day city of
Adablya that is of interest. It shows up on infrared photographs and is possible the
buried city of Baal Zephon. As the water in the Gulf would have risen 3 to 4 meters
u\in the last 3500 years according to Dr. William Stanley of the Smithsonian
Institute, the City would have been covered with water and may have moved
inland with time. Of course one cannot say with certainty that this is the city but
geophysical tests can give us an indication and only in time can we know its true
According to the old maps a Roman Fort was positioned for security reasons just
beyond this site and it would have potentially also provided the manpower for the
Migdol. This may be the Biblical Phinahiroth. As at this site we can tentatively
place the three cities we have a mountain range referred to as the "mountain of
deliverance" on the West side of the Gulf and on the opposite side we have
the Ayoun Musa. Going South along the West side of the Sinai we have several
ancient inscriptions that parallel the Scriptural account. The first one at Wadi Sudr
tells of the well known deliverance and as they would have moved further South
along the coast you have other accounts corroborating the Scriptural account of
the murmuring about the lack of water and food. There are some contaminations
to these inscriptions as later sojourners through the Sinai left their names with
these old accounts. However, there is a huge time difference between the original
writings and the newer contaminating ones approaching 2000 years of difference.
For the location of Mt. Sinai we go back to tradition and the traditional site for Mt.
Sinai is with the tallest peak in the Sinai. There is a lot to be said for this tradition
since the mountain is the only location in that area where a many people such as
the 2 to 3 million-estimated contingent could assemble. Also Moses is said to have
ascended the mountain and spent 40 days and nights up there. And between the 2
peaks on the mountain is a little valley. It is a very unique situation to find on the
top of a mountain but it easily explains how he could have spent that amount of
time there. There are no other mountains that have such a situation in the Sinai.
Others crossings proposals have them going through a more northerly route
through the Sinai. The crossing we are proposing harmonizes with the entire
scriptural account and with tradition and the available evidence. Some of the
crossing theories would have them going directly across the Sinai to their
destination but according to the record they spent 40 years wandering around in the
The present theory starts with the existing group coming out from Egypt
approaching Etham somewhere along the Sinai wilderness between the end of the
Red Sea and Port Said. Undoubtedly Etham would have been on a well traveled
route that would have allowed it to service traffic coming around the end of the
Gulf of Suez.
It would appear that they taken themselves into a trap. The mountain range created
a funnel effect to the fleeing multitude. They were boxed in. Nowhere does
entrapment occur in the other Exodus sites but this item should be accounted for
and only at certain locations can this criterion be met. Several other sites future
south along the coast of the Red Sea would meet this qualification but there are
many more items that should be factored into this equation.
The other part to that equation is how do you physically got a large body of people
across a treacherous site. The underwater land bridge that occurs at this site is a key
geophysical point. It is approximately 1 mile wide and is a natural phenomenon.
Without this structure it would be very difficult to move that body or people across
the Gulf. That such a natural structure occurs at this location could indicate how
this crossing could be accomplished. It is only occurrences of this phenomenon
on the Gulf of Suez or the Red Sea. This is perhaps "the way through the sea" as
mentioned in the bible. A way to get old, Young, flocks and goods across on. The
gradient is less than 1% 000000 the C mile wide crossing 2500 years ago the depth
of water at the middle of that structure would have been about 40 feet deep. Today
it is 50 feet deep.
So far we have looked at the traditional evidence as well as the physical evidence.
How can this route be verified? If remnants of Pharaohs Army were buried on the
underwater land bridge as the water came back in o him then we could easily verify
that site. That is the theory of the Red Sea Research Groan that metal objects from
Pharaohs army may be preserved on the underwater land bridge.
Totally is very easy to detect metal object underground, as it is structures
Geophysical methods such as sonar or radar are being used throughout the world
for non-destructive testing. Why not for Pharaohs army? If the waters coming
back on his army would have buried his chariots and armor these will show up
on sonar and metal imaging machines. The Red Sea Research Group, at the site
has accomplished a rough outline of this using hand held metal detectors. Metal
readings are received on the land bridge but not off of it. If the RSRG theory is
correct that is what will occur when. Recorded models are made of the area with
more sophisticated equipment.
It is mentioned that not only did Pharaoh have 600 of this best chariots and his
cavalrymen but the rest of this army ; we are guessing foot soldiers as well because
it states "and his military forces". Oo, it would seem that he would have his
chariots and cavalrymen up front and his foot soldiers behind. In the account we
have his army having trouble with wheels coming off and it sounds like general
confusion reigned so to try to place these in other than a general configuration is
Most of the chariots of that lime were made of wood. No expert can tell us what
the condition of the wood will be. At the site of the port city of Caesaria wood
found underwater 2000 years old was in perfect condition. That does not mean that
we will find it here that way but it is possible that if a mineral solution does infill
the wood over time that we can see that on very sophisticated computer enhanced
One other item that may be useful in determining the approximate Exodus date
is a volcanic eruption in the Aegean Sea called Santorini. Dr. Donald B. Redford
has suggested many dates for the Exodus ranging from the above date to as late as
700 BCE. But that is what we will be able to determine with test at the site. This
is singularly important point that cannot be overlooked. Test for Santorin ash have
been found all over the delta and samples of it are found in the 18Th Dynasty at Tell
al Daba. To do the test for the ash will of course require several core samples and
this is relatively simple and inexpensive procedure and this will procedure should
Questions such as who was the Pharaoh of the Exodus? What is the timing of the
Exodus? These and many more questions would have to be answered. The Issue
now is to determine whether the crossing was through the Gulf of Suez and if
evidence is found that they have crossed through the Sea then they were indeed in
Egypt and in the Sinai as well.
The writer has endeavored to assure the Supreme Council of Antiques that it
will try to keep the projects as free of religion as possible. It is proposed that one
Christian University work along with the Cairo University so that it remains a
project dedicated to answering scientific questions, not ones of any particular faith.
We feel that a balanced approach will work for phase I as well as Phase II. At this
point in time Brigham Young University from Provo Utah, USA has expressed
an interest in the project and would be the one linked to Cairo University. An
underwater expert has yet to be identified but will be encouraged to join the team
as soon as practical. In the mean time BYU and CU will apply jointly with us to
do the "survey" at this site before the Supreme Council of Antiquities. And we will
also apply jointly for a USAID grant to facilitate this research. The estimated cost
of the research is approximately US$ 250,000.
The Bright face of Fayoum's Mount Qatrani
BY DR M. EL-GAZZAR
Following the earthquake of October 12, 1992, Egyptians started to recognize the
dangers of the earth's sometimes unstable crust Gebel Quatrani, the epicenter of
the ultimately disasterous quake, has been the epicenter of two other earth-quakes
in the past.
The first quake was registered on August 8, 1303. Its shock-zone stretched from
Southern Greece to Koos (on the Nile) The second was left over the entire area of
lower Egypt on August 7, 1847.
Although there is no volcanic activity in Egypt we cannot ignore the unstable
basalt rock mantles scattered throughout the world. Such a mantle lies below
Gebel Qatrani in Fayoum, the epicenter of the three earthquakes registered so far.
The mantles were formed in the Oligocene Age, which occupies a considerably
large period of the Cenozoic Era, sometimes called "The Drawing of the Recent
This last short era of geologic time has witnessed the shaping of every feature of
the earth's present landscape.
During this time, the Alps and Himalayas were formed from colliding mantles,
the mountains of the earth rose to their present height, the rivers attained
the courses they now flow, and the climatic zones took on their modern
characteristics. This era also saw the spectacular rise of the mammals to
dominance upon the earth, and witnessed the "coming of Man."
The Cenozoic Era was a time of exceptional crustal unrest in many parts of
the world. Such movements continue today. Active volcanoes and violent
earthquakes warn us of mobile zones still "alive." Judged either by its sedimentary
record or by radioactive minerals, this era is the shortest, not exceeding 60 million
The fact is the earliest Cenozoic mammals in the world were found in Fayoum,
where the first fossilized vertebrates (60 million years old) were recovered
from the province by George Schweinfurth in 1879 on El Qurn Island. After the
discovery, several other investigators went there for research purposes.
The discovery of rich and diversified vertebrate fossils in Fayoum Province
during the last century drew the attention of experts in the field to Africa as a
whole. One could argue that the discovery of such rich fossil fields in Fayoum
represents sufficient evidence to prove that Africa never received its primitive
stock of mammals from Eurasia. The fossilized mammals thus far recovered
from Fayoum belong to eleven orders, seventeen families, thirty-five genera and
include eighty-two holotypes.
Generally speaking, Fayoum province is a more-or-less circular topographic
depression situated 70 km south of Cairo and 15km north of Benisuef, and covers
an area of approximately 1700 square kilometers. It is the most easterly of a great
number of depressions in the Western Desert, including Siwa Oasis, Bahariah
Oasis, and the Qattara Depression.
The most interesting area for vertebrate fossils is located between Gebel Qatrani
to the north and Birket Qarun to the south, where strara of the Oligocene Age
are exposed. It is worth mentioning that the Fayoum bone fields are accessible
by car from Cairo, where visitors will also enjoy seeing large petrefield logs and
vertebrate remains along the road in Gebel Qatrani.
The last expedition including teams of experts from the Yale Peabody Museum
of Natural History and the Geological Survey of Egypt, visited the Gebel Qatrani
fossil fields during the period 1961-1967. Since that time no further expeditions
have been conducted in the area due to financial problems.
In conclusion, Gebel Qatrani of Fayoum Province has two faces. One face is
black, first due to the word "Qatran" given to it by Beadnell in 1905 for its black
appearance when viewed from distance. But we can also relate the "black face" to
the region's potential as an epicenter for destructive earthquakes.
The other face is bright and prosperous, as it is connected to the best discovery
to happen in Egypt this century the discovery of rich and diversified fossil fields.
Unfortunately, research has been suspended since 1967 as it requires a sizeable
amount of funds to conduct such work using proper scientific methods.
Agricultural sector to suffer in looming water crisis
BY DR M. EL-GAZZAR
Daily decisions by politicians and economists affect our water resources more
than we may release for example, if a new plastics plant is to be established it
may require 1000 to 2000 tonnes of water for each tonne of product, most of
which will be returned to a river as polluted effluent. Or if the decision is made
to boost agriculture an irrigation network, can we afford the loss of 1500 to 300
tonnes of water for each tonne of wheat? Or again, if forests are to be cleared to
provide land for farming, will the springs dry up, the floods increase and the river
Water resources are a requirement for life and an indispensable dynamic agent. In
nature it transports
eroded materal from mountains and forests to the plains and the sea; man uses
it to carry away his waste and to produce electric power. It is also used for
navigation. It produces foods, and is a source of recreation. In amny cultures
water had a religious significance. This key element of the environment has so
many uses for man that it is not surprising that these uses sometimes conflict. In
the past, when the growth in demand for water was small in relation to untapped
resources the conflicts between various requirements was generally of only local
concern. The situations has changed.
So long as man was a relatively insignificant element in the balance of nature,
his power to disturb this balance was small. Now however, his technology is
becoming so powerful that. He can bring about great changes on continental and
even global scales, and the need to foresee the consequences of his actions has
become a condition for survival.
The heat of the sun supplies the enormous energy needed to keep the cycle going.
Some 500 million million tonnes of water are raised annually from the surface of
the earth to the atmosphere, to be redistributed around the globe as rain, hail and
snow to begin the cycle again.
It is our belief that the future needs of mankind for water will be met only through
a sympathetic understanding of the role of water in nature, of the relation between
water and man, and of the obstacles to its successful control that lie within man
Newspapers on January 26, published an article stating that a certain official
committee had prepared a report for the government, indicating that water require
demands per year amounted to 62 billion cu mt.
Allocation of the said amount as follows:
● Agriculture 50 billion (80 %)
● Industrial & drinking water 12 billion (20 %)
Break down as follows:
● River Nile (Egypt share) 55.5 b.
● Ground water 5 b.
● Recycled drainage water 7 b.
● Water saving due to new technology & irrigation
● Total 68.5 b.
Presuming that Gongly canal will be operating the report stated that the Egyptian
share will be 1.8 billion cu mt. Despite these optimistic figures and predictions,
the country will face a shortage of at least 1.7 billion cu mt. /year.
It is obvious, that a water crisis is inevitable and it is coming soon, which requires
a in-depth evaluation, as figures show that water needed for agriculture amount to
60 b cu mt with industry and drinking water needing 12 b cu mt. /year. No doubt
that agriculture will come off second, best as the industrial side is financially
more powerful and can afford to buy their needs at any cost.
In addition, drinking water is more essential than both agricultural and industrial
needs so the agricultural sector will once again be the loser.
The question is, how far the country can go with its industrial plans and
harming the agricultural sector keeping in mind that Egypt badly needs
Ring road to destroy one of the World's Seven Wonders
BY DR M. EL-GAZZAR
The area bound by the Pyramids Plateau from South to Wadi el-Qarn to the north
along the Cairo / Alex. High –way should, some argue, be regarded as one unit for
the sake of protecting the pyramids and the adjacent natural life.
The unique combination of the natural and the man made, should be considered as
a great national treasure and be protected from changes and alterations.
And most importantly from truck roads, high ways, sewerage systems,
complicated infrastructure. etc.
Environment protection measure must begin with the unique ecoene anticline
(plateau), equivalent to Gebel el-Moqqattam beds on the east side of the Nile,
where the ancient Egyptians built the Pyramids and the Sphinx.
Second in the famous Wadi Talun to the north along Talun to the north along
Talun anticlines (Plateau) separated from the well recognized Abu Roash
Anticline (Dome) and Gebel Chigigi by the Sudr el-Khamis Valley.
Exceptional to the flat plain of the western desert in the Abu-Roash Damal
structure which is a salient feature of the Cair area.
Visitors also enjoy the Hassana Dome, with its successive concentric guillies and
ridges. Climbing this Dome, a fantastic view of the whole area is seen with Wadi
el-Qarn (valley) to the north.
Despite all these the Greater Cairo Ring Road is planned along the northern end
of the Pyramids Plateau violating this combination of nature and history.
This road will carry all kinds of traffic
This plan ignores the damage, destruction and pollution…etc, that will harm these
monuments and the surrounding natural environment.
It also ignores the multibillion investment poured into building eight five-star
hotels,(starting from Mina House , up to Oasis Hotel) the museum for antiquities
three art museums…etc.
There is a huge income to be gained from this area if kept as one piece and
maintained as a touristic spot. If the ring road planners pay some attention to these
actors, they will without hesitation decide to construct the west end of the highway
some where else, regardless the size of any additional expenditures that may
Pyramid Ring Road danger
Haphazard development and construction around the Pyramid area endangers
Egypt's most valuable national treasure. Exploitation of this area began mush
earlier with the informal housing encroaching into it. Then, followed heavy
and diversified industrial plants and factories. The last act of aggression against
the Pyramid area is the envisioned Ring Road around it and the sophisticated
sewerage system which is supposed to accompany this plan. The danger from
such irresponsible development is not limited to the areas flanking the Ring
Road, but effects the entirety of the monuments and natural wealth of the greater
It must be kept in mind that the Pyramids are part of the larger landscape which
houses them. The wellbeing of this historical wealth is largely dependent on
the protection and preservation of the greater region. This area is bound by the
pyramid plateau on the south and Wadi el Qarn on the north. This area must be
considered as a single unit which must be declared as a protected zone, subject
to strict zoning regulations. Heavy traffic must, under all circumstances be kept
off this area. The envisioned Ring Road however, if built, will bring the entire
inner city traffic of Cairo into this area. The Authorities must relocate the western
intersection of this Ring Road at least ten Kilometers away from their designed
path which is at only a kilometer to the Pyramids. Lastly further infrastructural
development in this area must be kept to a minimum. The natural balance of the
greater Pyramid region cannot take any more infrastructure pressure, nor can the
historical wealth endure more encroachments.
As a geologist and on behalf of the Pyramids Garden Environmental Protection
Society, I am deeply concerned over the welfare for our national historical and
natural wealth. I urge for more caution in development initiatives that may cause
Waste disposal basins needed for new cities
BY DR M. EL-GAZZAR
Man's Waste and Pollution EVERYTHING touched by King Midas turned into
gold. By a sort of recycling process, pretty well everything modern men touch,
including themselves, turns to a waste product sooner or later.
Exceptions are rare, and centre around such things as valued landscape views, and
objects of "high culture" such as Old Masters, priceless building and symphonies
Even Michelangelos will crumble some day, presumably, and-fed through hi-fi
technology-Brahms may become noise pollution. In the sphere of material use,
the creation of waste products is generally accepted as inevitable; food becomes
sewage, automobiles become junked cars, while quarries and mines become
In the late 1970's Egypt decided to expand horizontally, building new cities as
the existing capital "Cairo" and major old cities became overcrowded, reaching
Three sites were presumably carefully selected according to international
standards on constructing new cities.
i. Tenth of Ramadan city
ii. Sadat city
iii. Six of October city
The three sites attracted a great deal of industrial investors and companies,
ultimately quite a number of factories and industrial sites were built, where huge
quantities of industrial waste, of all types, will be generated.
It is obvious these cities are not facing problems in disposing their wastes right
now and probably not for some years, but the question to be asked is how long
this will last before the environment of these cities id endangered?
An underground waste disposal method would provide a quick solution. But we
would have to test methods of disposing waste in empty sub-surface basins as
tested by some industrial companies.
In U.S.A trials were made by the American Association of Geologists in 1958, at
the request of U.S.A atomic energy commission, to find some geological basins
where radioactive waste could be disposed.
Because the proposed techniques were successful and could be applied to other
industrial wastes, they were introduced to different industries.
A big advantage of sub-surface basins in the available space for the storage or
disposal of industrial waste, liquids and solids. Disposal methods which are being
● The injection of liquids into deep permeable formations.
● The storage of solids in caverns constructed in salt beds.
● The incorporation of liquids in cement slurries, which are injected
into artificially-produced fractures in shale and allowed to harden
Physical limitations on the use of these three methods and the
principles governing sub-surface disposal techniques should be
There are over 500deep industrial-waste injection wells in the United States,
where a wide variety of wastes is injected under extremely varied conditions of
flow-rate and pressure.
So we must now start looking for suitable underground sites around the new
industrial cities and communities, for use as "waste disposal basins" before it are